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Optimal ESS Investment Strategies for Energy Arbitrage by Market Structures and Participants
Ho Chul Lee*, Hyeongig Kim and Yong Tae Yoon**
Abstract Despite the advantages of energy arbitrage using energy storage systems (ESSs), the high cost of ESSs has not attracted storage owners for the arbitrage. However, as the costs of ESS have decreased and the price volatility of the electricity market has increased, many studies have been conducted on energy arbitrage using ESSs. In this study, the existing two-period model is modified in consideration of the ESS cost and risk-free contracts. Optimal investment strategies that maximize the sum of external effects caused by price changes and arbitrage profits are formulated by market participants. The optimal amounts of ESS investment for three types of investors in three different market structures are determined with game theory, and strategies in the form of the mixedcomplementarity problem are solved by using the PATH solver of GAMS. Results show that when all market participants can participate in investment simultaneously, only customers invest in ESSs, which means that customers can obtain market power by operating their ESSs. Attracting other types of ESS investors, such as merchant storage owners and producers, to mitigate market power can be achieved by increasing risk-free contracts.
Keyword Energy arbitrage, Energy storage system, Investment strategy, Nash equilibrium, Social welfare
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