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JEET, Vol. 11, No. 1, January 2016 
A Threephase Hybrid Power Flow Algorithm for Meshed Distribution System with Transformer Branches and PV Nodes
Hongwei Li 
Area 
A  Electric Power Engineering 
Abstract 
Aiming at analyzing the power flow of the distribution systems with distribution
transformer (DT) branches and PV nodes, a hybrid threephase power flow methodology is presented
in this paper. The incidence formulas among node voltages, loop currents and node current injections
have been developed based on nodebranch incidence matrix of the distribution network. The method
can solve the power flow directly and has higher efficiency. Moreover, the paper provides a modified
method to model DT branches by considering winding connections, phase shifting and offnominal tap
ratio, and then DT branches could be seen like one transmission line with the proposed power flow
method. To deal with the PV nodes, an improved approach to calculate reactive power increment at
each PV node was deduced based on the assumption that the positivesequence voltage magnitude of
PV node is fixed at a given value. Then during calculating the power flow at each iteration, it only
needs to update current injection at each PV node with the proposed algorithm. The process is very
simple and clear. The results of IEEE 4 nodes and the modified IEEE 34 nodes test feeders verified the
correctness and efficiency of the proposed hybrid power flow algorithm. 
Keyword 
Distribution transformer,Meshed distribution system,Nodebranch incidence matrix,Power flow,PV nodes

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